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Usually, high-resolution and large-area NIL molds are expensive and difficult to fabricate. Even though they are typically made of silicon or other hard materials like nickel or quartz, after a number of imprinting cycles, they start cracking and, therefore, become unusable. In order to preserve the mold without affecting the throughput, intermediate molds were introduced. Intermediate molds are replicas of the original mold that are themselves used as molds to transfer the topographies to the final material. This interest is also present at an industrial level. For example, the company Obducat AB has recently patented  an imprinting apparatus to perform a two-step process involving intermediates for typical topographies ranging from gratings of 80 nm linewidth up to micrometric pillars.
Intermediate molds are generally produced in plastic or soft materials by soft-lithography techniques and must guarantee high-fidelity copies and a sufficiently high number of processes before undergoing degradation . While polymers such as poly-(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) or polystyrene (PS) are frequently used in thermal NIL, they are not recommended as material for intermediate molds because they are generally sticky and tend to crack during the release step . Differently, beyond the ease of fabrication, elastomeric materials can ensure good elastic adaptation and conformal contact with the substrate, which leads to intimate contact without voids .
After having fabricated the PFPE intermediate molds as previously described, we performed thermal NIL to transfer the nanostructures on Cyclic Olefin Copolymer (COC) foils. The process parameters were previously optimized for this copolymer as follows: Timprint = 150 °C (TCOCg = 134 °C, t = 300 s, P = 50 bar, Tcool-down = 80 °C) [18,19,20]. The characteristic of low surface energy of PFPE also helped in this case, thus facilitating the final detachment of the imprinted plastics. We quality checked the process by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and by acquiring 3D images of the initial mold, PFPE intermediate mold, and the COC replica. Starting from 5 × 5 μm2 AFM images, linear profiles were extracted across ridges and grooves to measure their lateral dimension. In particular, the Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM) was used as a parameter to quantitatively compare the original nanostructures present on the mold and the ones on the PFPE intermediate and, more importantly, the ones on the COC final replica.
3D AFM reconstructions in Figure 3c show a larger view of the topographies, which confirms the satisfactory compliance of each transfer step to the previous and highlighting the consistent profiles of the original mold and COC replica. Owing to the possibility to fabricate more copies of the same initial mold and to the fact that a single PFPE intermediate mold can sustain tents of thermal imprint cycles without cracking or affecting the final feature resolution, the entire process yield is considerably increased. 2b1af7f3a8