The latest version of the Bitcoin mining calculator makes it simple and easy to quickly calculate Bitcoin mining profits by adjusting the mining hashrate values or by selecting one of the Bitcoin mining hardware devices from the ASIC Bitcoin miners list.
The Bitcoin mining information is updated continually with the current block mining information. This information is used as the default inputs for the BTC mining calculator along with the default hashrate and wattage specs from the best ASIC Bitcoin miner.
With this information and our backend hashrate calculator, you can calculate your BTC mining profits - providing valuable and strategic profitability information allowing you as the miner to make better informed decisions about Bitcoin mining.
Each BTC mining calculator input has been preloaded with the best Bitcoin mining hardware hashrate and energy consumption in watts, average electricity costs as well as the current Bitcoin price, Bitcoin block reward, and Bitcoin difficulty.
Cloud mining is a hand-off approach to mining Dogecoin which lets you buy into a mining operation. You are not required to own anything, instead of renting the hardware from a big data centre. There are specific cloud mining pools that you can join, all of which offer Scrypt-based mining for a monthly fee. Some of the pools you can join Genesis Mining and NiceHash.
Dogecoin cloud mining is ideal for people who do not want to commit to hardware or management required for the mining process. However, the downside is that almost all the contracts are time-locked. This means that the ROI can go down sharply if you take a 1-year contract from a cloud miner and the price of Doge decreases below the cost of your mining and electricity.
Buy the required mining hardware or check if your existing GPU/CPU is suitable for scrypt-based algorithms. If you want to mine profitably, you will need a Scrypt ASIC Miner. These can be purchased from official producers or resellers. It's best to buy only from a reputable reseller as demand often exceeds supply, and counterfeiting of this kind of equipment is an issue in the crypto community.
The Dogecoin mining calculator is used to make it simple. The default value for the latest mining hash rate of Dogecoin and the latest Dogecoin difficulty target is preloaded in these calculators for better results.
For users that don't want to or cannot install their own mining rigs, cloud mining is an interesting option. Essentially, you subscribe to a data center that mines for you. The company mines DOGE, pays you the mining rewards and charges you a monthly or yearly fee for doing so. There are several companies that offer these services, the most popular being NiceHash.
It's important to keep in mind that there is a fair amount of risk when cloud mining since you are trusting that a third-party data center's policies are in order. You are also adding to the centralisation of the protocol by using a cloud miner. As always, do your own research and figure out the best option for you.
Due to the recent price surge, Dogecoin mining can be quite profitable. Miners receive 10,000 DOGE tokens per block mined, which can add up over time, especially if the hype continues. However, it's important to remember that individual miners will have different profit margins and costs than pool miners or cloud miners.
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Implicit solvent models are powerful tools in accounting for the aqueous environment at a fraction of the computational expense of explicit solvent representations. Here, we compare the ability of common implicit solvent models (TC, OBC, OBC2, GBMV, GBMV2, GBSW, GBSW/MS, GBSW/MS2 and FACTS) to reproduce experimental absolute hydration free energies for a series of 499 small neutral molecules that are modeled using AMBER/GAFF parameters and AM1-BCC charges. Given optimized surface tension coefficients for scaling the surface area term in the nonpolar contribution, most implicit solvent models demonstrate reasonable agreement with extensive explicit solvent simulations (average difference 1.0-1.7 kcal/mol and R2=0.81-0.91) and with experimental hydration free energies (average unsigned errors=1.1-1.4 kcal/mol and R2=0.66-0.81). Chemical classes of compounds are identified that need further optimization of their ligand force field parameters and others that require improvement in the physical parameters of the implicit solvent models themselves. More sophisticated nonpolar models are also likely necessary to more effectively represent the underlying physics of solvation and take the quality of hydration free energies estimated from implicit solvent models to the next level. PMID:21735452
Previous research has connected a specific pattern of beta oscillatory activity to proper motor execution, but no study to date has directly examined how resting beta levels affect motor-related beta oscillatory activity in the motor cortex. Understanding this relationship is imperative to determining the basic mechanisms of motor control, as well as the impact of pathological beta oscillations on movement execution. In the current study, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) and a complex movement paradigm to quantify resting beta activity and movement-related beta oscillations in the context of healthy aging. We chose healthy aging as a model because preliminary evidence suggests that beta activity is elevated in older adults, and thus by examining older and younger adults we were able to naturally vary resting beta levels. To this end, healthy younger and older participants were recorded during motor performance and at rest. Using beamforming, we imaged the peri-movement beta event-related desynchronization (ERD) and extracted virtual sensors from the peak voxels, which enabled absolute and relative beta power to be assessed. Interestingly, absolute beta power during the pre-movement baseline was much stronger in older relative to younger adults, and older adults also exhibited proportionally large beta desynchronization (ERD) responses during motor planning and execution compared to younger adults. Crucially, we found a significant relationship between spontaneous (resting) beta power and beta ERD magnitude in both primary motor cortices, above and beyond the effects of age. A similar link was found between beta ERD magnitude and movement duration. These findings suggest a direct linkage between beta reduction during movement and spontaneous activity in the motor cortex, such that as spontaneous beta power increases, a greater reduction in beta activity is required to execute movement. We propose that, on an individual level, the primary motor cortices have an
Simulations of the preindustrial and doubled CO2 climates are made with the GISS Global Climate Middle Atmosphere Model 3 using two different estimates of the absolute solar irradiance value: a higher value measured by solar radiometers in the 1990s and a lower value measured recently by the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment. Each of the model simulations is adjusted to achieve global energy balance; without this adjustment the difference in irradiance produces a global temperature change of 0.48C, comparable to the cooling estimated for the Maunder Minimum. The results indicate that by altering cloud cover the model properly compensates for the different absolute solar irradiance values on a global level when simulating both preindustrial and doubled CO2 climates. On a regional level, the preindustrial climate simulations and the patterns of change with doubled CO2 concentrations are again remarkably similar, but there are some differences. Using a higher absolute solar irradiance value and the requisite cloud cover affects the model's depictions of high-latitude surface air temperature, sea level pressure, and stratospheric ozone, as well as tropical precipitation. In the climate change experiments it leads to an underestimation of North Atlantic warming, reduced precipitation in the tropical western Pacific, and smaller total ozone growth at high northern latitudes. Although significant, these differences are typically modest compared with the magnitude of the regional changes expected for doubled greenhouse gas concentrations. Nevertheless, the model simulations demonstrate that achieving the highest possible fidelity when simulating regional climate change requires that climate models use as input the most accurate (lower) solar irradiance value.
In finite element methods that are based on position and slope coordinates, a representation of axial and bending deformation by means of an elastic line approach has become popular. Such beam and plate formulations based on the so-called absolute nodal coordinate formulation have not yet been verified sufficiently enough with respect to analytical results or classical nonlinear rod theories. Examining the existing planar absolute nodal coordinate element, which uses a curvature proportional bending strain expression, it turns out that the deformation does not fully agree with the solution of the geometrically exact theory and, even more serious, the normal force is incorrect. A correction based on the classical ideas of the extensible elastica and geometrically exact theories is applied and a consistent strain energy and bending moment relations are derived. The strain energy of the solid finite element formulation of the absolute nodal coordinate beam is based on the St. Venant-Kirchhoff material: therefore, the strain energy is derived for the latter case and compared to classical nonlinear rod theories. The error in the original absolute nodal coordinate formulation is documented by numerical examples. The numerical example of a large deformation cantilever beam shows that the normal force is incorrect when using the previous approach, while a perfect agreement between the absolute nodal coordinate formulation and the extensible elastica can be gained when applying the proposed modifications. The numerical examples show a very good agreement of reference analytical and numerical solutions with the solutions of the proposed beam formulation for the case of large deformation pre-curved static and dynamic problems, including buckling and eigenvalue analysis. The resulting beam formulation does not employ rotational degrees of freedom and therefore has advantages compared to classical beam elements regarding energy-momentum conservation. 2b1af7f3a8