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Sleep loss has been associated with increased risk for many medical disorders, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, osteoporosis, asthma, and injury (2). Sleep loss also plays an important role in alcoholism, as people with alcoholism have higher rates of sleep disorders than individuals with no history of alcohol abuse (26). In addition to increasing the risk of relapse, sleep loss increases tolerance to alcohol's effects (27,28).
In addition, blood levels of certain brain chemicals, including serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, increase during SWS, which may indicate the role of these chemicals in switching sleep states (5,6). For example, studies show that alcohol consumption increases the production of dopamine in the hypothalamus, which may trigger the onset of SWS (19). Conversely, norepinephrine and serotonin decrease with alcohol consumption, which may prolong wakefulness and delay sleep onset (20). The results of some studies suggest that alcohol consumption decreases the production of serotonin and norepinephrine in nerve cells in the brain stem. The brain stem is also the location of the periaqueductal gray, a region of the brain stem that helps regulate SWS (5). Alcohol may interfere with the function of this area by suppressing the release of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, all of which are associated with the regulation of SWS.
Sleep is one of the body's most fundamental restorative processes. Sleep is associated with the release of growth factors that promote cell repair. Sleep is also linked to the immune system by facilitating the resolution of inflammation and by reducing the production of stress hormones (2). Several studies have demonstrated that alcohol disrupts the normal sequence and duration of sleep stages and reduces sleep duration. For example, one study found that alcohol consumption by ethanol-naïve subjects increased NREM sleep fragmentation (NREM-SF) (21), a sleep disorder that is associated with increased risk for depression and other psychiatric disorders. In addition, two studies showed that alcohol consumption increases sleep latency (22), a measure of the time required for a person to fall asleep, and reduces SWS, which is characterized by a reduction in the number of rapid eye movement (REM) episodes (23,24). Finally, one study found that alcohol consumption increases the number of awakenings, a measure of sleep fragmentation (25).
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